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Общая характеристика адъювантов и механизм их действия (часть 1)

https://doi.org/10.30895/2221-996X-2020-20-4-245-256

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Аннотация

Актуальной проблемой современного здравоохранения является разработка новых вакцин и совершенствование уже используемых в медицинской практике, что обусловлено снижением иммунологической активности населения, появлением новых инфекций или активацией «старых», которые ранее считались побежденными. Неотъемлемой и важной частью современных вакцин являются адъюванты, которые стимулируют развитие иммунного ответа на антиген вакцины. Однако, несмотря на многочисленные усилия по их разработке, в настоящее время в медицинской практике применяется лишь небольшое количество адъювантов. Цель работы — систематизация данных литературы по анализу механизмов действия адъювантов, особенностей их структуры, состава и стимулирующих эффектов, которые опосредуют их иммуноадъювантные свойства. Обобщены сведения об адъювантах, входящих в состав зарегистрированных вакцин, приведена их характеристика, проанализированы молекулярные механизмы действия адъювантов с целью установления взаимосвязи их структуры и проявляемой активности, что является важным для разработки более эффективных и безопасных адъювантов. Представлены сведения о перспективных разработках по совершенствованию уже используемых адъювантов с целью усиления их стимулирующего действия. Сделан вывод о том, что ключевым направлением исследований в области повышения эффективности вакцинации является изучение механизмов, способствующих развитию эффективной защиты от возбудителей инфекции, а также способов стимулирования защитных реакций организма с помощью адъювантов, в первую очередь путем воздействия на систему врожденного иммунитета.

Об авторах

Н. А. Алпатова
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение «Научный центр экспертизы средств медицинского применения» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации
Россия

Алпатова Наталья Александровна, канд. биол. наук.,

Петровский б-р, д. 8, стр. 2, Москва, 127051



Ж. И. Авдеева
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение «Научный центр экспертизы средств медицинского применения» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации

Авдеева Жанна Ильдаровна, д-р мед. наук, проф.,

Петровский б-р, д. 8, стр. 2, Москва, 127051



С. Л. Лысикова
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение «Научный центр экспертизы средств медицинского применения» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации

Лысикова Светлана Леонидовна, канд. мед. наук.,

Петровский б-р, д. 8, стр. 2, Москва, 127051



О. В. Головинская
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение «Научный центр экспертизы средств медицинского применения» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации

Головинская Ольга Вячеславовна, канд. мед. наук.,

Петровский б-р, д. 8, стр. 2, Москва, 127051



Л. А. Гайдерова
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение «Научный центр экспертизы средств медицинского применения» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации

Гайдерова Лидия Александровна, канд. мед. наук.,

Петровский б-р, д. 8, стр. 2, Москва, 127051



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Для цитирования:


Алпатова Н.А., Авдеева Ж.И., Лысикова С.Л., Головинская О.В., Гайдерова Л.А. Общая характеристика адъювантов и механизм их действия (часть 1). БИОпрепараты. Профилактика, диагностика, лечение. 2020;20(4):245-256. https://doi.org/10.30895/2221-996X-2020-20-4-245-256

For citation:


Alpatova N.A., Avdeeva Z.I., Lysikova S.L., Golovinskaya O.V., Gayderova L.A. General Characteristics of Adjuvants and Their Mechanism of Action (Part 1). BIOpreparations. Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment. 2020;20(4):245-256. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.30895/2221-996X-2020-20-4-245-256

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